The primary step of addressing climate change is by mitigating the factors that are contributing to the issue. The main factor causing an increase in climate change is the emissions of greenhouse gases. Regulating emissions from the transport sector is imperative to effectively combat climate change.
Within the transport sector, the primary target for mitigation has been managing mobility. There are three key ways to successfully shift vehicle users away from personal cars by reducing the need to travel, incorporating more toll roads, and implementing an extensive public transit system. Developing compact cities that increase the ease of use for pedestrians and cyclists and create a hardship for car users will help reduce the need for people to travel by vehicle and reduce the amount of vehicles on the roads and their emissions. A system that implements a tax on roads would dissuade users from using their personal vehicles to travel on those roads. This would help eliminate congestion, as large source of emissions, as there would be a decreased volume of vehicles. A convenient, extensive, and affordable public transit system would be an alternative that many personal vehicle users hopefully turn to. Public transportation vehicles emit less per person per distance travel, which would help reduce the amount of greenhouse gases released.
Aside from directing vehicle users away from their personal automobiles, targeting vehicles to mitigate climate change is fundamental as well. By implementing emission standards, developing cleaner vehicle technology and improving fuel quality, climate change is addressed from an individual perspective as it s unlikely that a mass shift away from personal vehicles will occur. Enforcing emissions standards can prevent and regulate the use of cars that emit harmful levels of pollutants. Improving fuel quality or shifting to different forms of fuel will avoid the use of fuel that is more likely to emit more pollutants when used in vehicles, such as diesel, and can lead to the incorporation of carbon neutral fuels. Finally, developing cleaner vehicle technology can improve fuel economy and result in less fuel use.
Although these areas encompass a large effort to mitigate climate change, this list is not exhaustive as there are many ways to combat this issue. These various measures will not only help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions but will also achieve co-benefits in terms of better air quality, savings in travel time, road safety and energy security. The choice of policy options will, no doubt, vary across countries and regions and be influenced by the level of economic development, the extent of urbanization, culture and geography.