The review includes discussion of the key traffic offences which are important for road safety and which need to be targeted in enforcement strategies. This goes beyond the enforcement of speed, alcohol and seat belt offences. Enforcement is not a stand-alone activity. There is ample evidence that enforcement is much more effective if it forms part of a systematic approach to road safety and is backed up by information and engineering measures. There is a large body of information to confirm that traffic regulation enforcement can be highly cost-effective. The aim of this ETSC review which has been prepared by experts from across the European Union is to focus attention on the importance of this area of road safety work, to highlight successful strategies and cost-effective enforcement methods and to make recommendations for action at local, national and international levels.