Urban traffic is responsible for 40% of CO2 road transport emissions. In Europe, 9 citizens out of 10 are exposed to harmful particle emissions that are higher than the tolerated norm. Time wasted in traffic jams will soon cost 1% of the European Union’s GDP. In terms of urban transport, the European Union contributes to financing infrastructures and equipment, but also supports projects aiming at replacing petrol by alternative and clean fuels. Most cities in the EU are putting in place a mix of advanced technologies and transport policy measures, such as alternative traffic management systems to combine mobility and quality of life. The EU cooperates with cities, notably through the CIVITAS network, to favour the exchange of know-how and best practices at European level.