Ghana, Malawi and Tanzania are each African countries that have established road funds in recent years. Ghana was one of the first countries in the world to establish one in 1985 and formed the model for many other countries, and established a Road Fund Board in 1997. Malawi established a Road Fund in 1997 as part of the National Road Authority. Tanzania established a Road Fund in the early 1990s although a dedicated Board and Secretariat did not come into place until 1999.
Given the importance and each country’s differing experience, this paper explores the status of the road sector and compares the operations of the Road Fund in each country. It comments on the levels of financing and how nstitutional arrangements have influenced the management and financing of the maintenance and development of their respective road networks. Conclusions are then drawn on what institutional arrangements are desirable for road funds and what measures could be put in place to increase accountability.