Emission standards such as those in place in European Union countries (known as Euro Standards) only apply to new vehicles. These may lose their impact once a vehicle is in use if maintenance levels fall below that required for optimum performance. Rigorous inspection, certification and enforcement are necessary in order to keep emissions from in-use vehicles as low as possible.
Vehicle inspection is a procedure by which a vehicle is professionally examined to make sure that it confirms to emissions and safety norms set by the government. Inspection can be required at various times, for example at set intervals, or upon transfer of title of the vehicle. Requirements vary from country to country. In Japan, under the Shaken Program, a vehicle must be inspected every two years once it is more than three years old. In European Union countries, all member states must carry out periodic safety and emission inspections for most types of motor vehicles. The EU also sets minimum requirements for those inspections and their intervals. EU regulations on inspections are mandated under Directive 96/96/EC (December 1996).
- Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance Programs: International Experience and Best Practices 2004, USAID
- Action Plan on Strengthening Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance in Chongquing, People's Republic of China, 2002,ADB
- Action Plan on Integrated Vehicle Emission Reduction Strategy, Greater Jakarta, Indonesia, 2002, ADB
- Integrated Action Plan to Reduce Vehicle Emission in Vietnam 2002, ADB
- World Business Council for Sustainable Development - WBCSD
- Activities of the European Union and Summaries of key legislations on Transport and Environment.